A Review of Association betweenEarly Exposure to Infant-feeding formulas and Type 1 Diabetes among Children

Yahaya T, Oladele, EO, Umar, J

Abstract


The increasing incidenceof type 1 diabetes among children calls for a thorough understanding of the disease to stem its growth. Early exposure to infant-feeding formulas has been linked with the disease and several mechanisms of action have been proposed. However, it is unclear the exact mechanism by which infant-formulas aid in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. This paper reviewed and articulated several hypotheses proposed as the mechanisms of action of infant formulas in the onset of type 1 diabetes. The Google search engine was used to search for relevant information on the internet from reputable sources such as PubMed, Google Scholar, among others.The majority of the studies reviewed overwhelmingly agreed early exposure to infant-feeding formulas may contribute to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes among children. Cow milk, for example, contains bovine insulin, which differs from human insulin with 3 amino acids, and can cause immune reactions in children. Gluten-containing diets such as wheat may cause proportional changes in immune cell populations or modify the cytokine/chemokine pattern towards an inflammatory profile. Concentrated soy-based formulas contain active estrogenic endocrine disruptors. Fruits, berries and roots may be infected with toxic antibiotics, which can start off autoimmunity. Nursing moms are therefore advised to breastfeedtheir babies for a long time before introducing infant-feeding formulas, especially those with a family with a history of diabetes.


Keywords


Type 1 diabetes, Infant-feeding formulas, bovine insulin, Gluten, Pathogenesis

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7439/ijbar.v8i5.4047

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